±Recent Visitors

Recent Visitors to Com-Central!

±User Info-big


Welcome Anonymous

Nickname
Password

Membership:
Latest: cgsimpson
New Today: 0
New Yesterday: 0
Overall: 6645

People Online:
Members: 0
Visitors: 249
Total: 249
Who Is Where:
 Visitors:
01: Home
02: Community Forums
03: Community Forums
04: Downloads
05: Home
06: Community Forums
07: Home
08: Photo Gallery
09: Community Forums
10: Community Forums
11: Photo Gallery
12: Photo Gallery
13: Home
14: Community Forums
15: Home
16: Community Forums
17: Home
18: Community Forums
19: Downloads
20: Community Forums
21: Photo Gallery
22: Home
23: Community Forums
24: Community Forums
25: Community Forums
26: Home
27: Community Forums
28: Community Forums
29: Downloads
30: Photo Gallery
31: Home
32: Community Forums
33: Photo Gallery
34: Community Forums
35: Photo Gallery
36: Photo Gallery
37: Community Forums
38: Home
39: CPGlang
40: Downloads
41: Community Forums
42: Community Forums
43: News
44: Community Forums
45: Downloads
46: Member Screenshots
47: Home
48: Downloads
49: Member Screenshots
50: Home
51: Home
52: Community Forums
53: Community Forums
54: Downloads
55: Downloads
56: Home
57: CPGlang
58: Community Forums
59: Your Account
60: Home
61: Community Forums
62: Community Forums
63: Home
64: Home
65: Community Forums
66: Home
67: Community Forums
68: Downloads
69: Community Forums
70: Downloads
71: Community Forums
72: Home
73: Home
74: Community Forums
75: Photo Gallery
76: Member Screenshots
77: Downloads
78: Community Forums
79: Community Forums
80: Home
81: Photo Gallery
82: Home
83: Photo Gallery
84: Community Forums
85: Community Forums
86: Community Forums
87: Community Forums
88: Home
89: CPGlang
90: Home
91: Community Forums
92: Downloads
93: CPGlang
94: News Archive
95: Community Forums
96: CPGlang
97: Downloads
98: Home
99: Home
100: Home
101: Home
102: Community Forums
103: Community Forums
104: Community Forums
105: Home
106: Community Forums
107: Home
108: Home
109: Community Forums
110: Home
111: CPGlang
112: Downloads
113: Home
114: Community Forums
115: Community Forums
116: Community Forums
117: Your Account
118: Member Screenshots
119: Community Forums
120: Community Forums
121: Community Forums
122: Community Forums
123: Community Forums
124: Community Forums
125: Community Forums
126: Home
127: Community Forums
128: Downloads
129: News Archive
130: News Archive
131: CPGlang
132: Community Forums
133: Home
134: Community Forums
135: Home
136: Community Forums
137: Community Forums
138: Community Forums
139: Home
140: Photo Gallery
141: Community Forums
142: CPGlang
143: Community Forums
144: Home
145: Home
146: CPGlang
147: Home
148: Community Forums
149: Community Forums
150: Downloads
151: Home
152: CPGlang
153: Community Forums
154: Home
155: CPGlang
156: News
157: Downloads
158: Community Forums
159: Home
160: Community Forums
161: Home
162: Community Forums
163: CPGlang
164: Community Forums
165: Community Forums
166: CPGlang
167: CPGlang
168: Community Forums
169: Community Forums
170: Downloads
171: Community Forums
172: Community Forums
173: Your Account
174: Downloads
175: Downloads
176: Home
177: Home
178: Community Forums
179: Downloads
180: Community Forums
181: News Archive
182: Home
183: Community Forums
184: Community Forums
185: Community Forums
186: Downloads
187: Downloads
188: Home
189: Community Forums
190: Community Forums
191: Statistics
192: Home
193: Community Forums
194: Home
195: Home
196: Home
197: CPGlang
198: Member Screenshots
199: Member Screenshots
200: Home
201: Home
202: Home
203: Home
204: Home
205: Home
206: Home
207: Community Forums
208: Home
209: Downloads
210: Community Forums
211: Community Forums
212: Community Forums
213: Statistics
214: Community Forums
215: CPGlang
216: Community Forums
217: Home
218: Home
219: Community Forums
220: Home
221: Community Forums
222: Community Forums
223: Community Forums
224: Community Forums
225: Home
226: Community Forums
227: CPGlang
228: Community Forums
229: Photo Gallery
230: Home
231: Photo Gallery
232: Photo Gallery
233: Statistics
234: Photo Gallery
235: Home
236: Photo Gallery
237: Community Forums
238: Community Forums
239: Community Forums
240: Home
241: Home
242: Community Forums
243: CPGlang
244: CPGlang
245: Downloads
246: CPGlang
247: Community Forums
248: CPGlang
249: Home

Staff Online:

No staff members are online!
Dabbling in Linux? File structure explained. :: Archived
This is a forum for Software related items such as OS', Virus notices, cool or free programs, etc. Gaming software should go in the gaming folder pertaining to the current info.
Post new topic    Revive this topic    Printer Friendly Page     Forum Index ›  Software

Topic Archived View previous topic :: View next topic  
Author Message
Shadow_Bshwackr
Janitor

Offline Offline
Joined: Jan 21, 2005
Posts: 7015
Location: Central Illinois, USA
PostPosted: Tue Dec 06, 2005 12:16 pm
Post subject: Dabbling in Linux? File structure explained.

As some of you know, I run Linux/XP as a dual boot set up and other than the initial interest in something other than XP, the file structure is probably the most confusing for Windows users to understand. Linux uses terms like /home, /usr, etc, as directories and Windows uses My Computer, My Documents, Program Files and so on, and this is something I found on the net to help you understand how those two different OS' place files in the file tree.

There are several differences between windows and linux filesystem structure. these differences are the way linux ( and other unix os ) protect against both data loss and filesystem corruption.

t begin with a basic terminology definition ( most likely not needed, but included for completeness )

root is both the system admin, and the foundation of the file system. the differentiation is:
root = system admin
/ = foundation of file system

Directory: a folder on a partition. the biggest difference is a directory can be a partition name as well, when this happens accessing the directory is changing drives in windows.

filesystem type: this is the underlying structure of the filesystem, e2fs, reiserfs.... a windows version is fat, fat32 or ntfs.

partition: the same as windows, a section of physical hard drive set up to act as a hard drive in and of itself.

where a directory or partition has an * after it will be where the term is applying to more than one definition.

now that this is clarified, the linux names and the windows equivalents.

/ this is the same as the c drive with windows.

/bin this directory is used to store the command line executables that any use can access. comparable to c:\windows\command

/boot this directory can be, and usually is, a separate partition. this contains the kernel, and those parts of the bootloader that are not able to fit in the mbr ( master boot record )

/dev this directory is used to store the definitions of all known devices. it is not recommended to make this it's own partition.
this is most closely matched to device manager in windows, though this is not a good match, as it also resembles the c:\windows\system folder

/etc this directory is used to store system configuration data, such as what drivers, default fonts, default interface, default runlevel... are setup for the system. it contains the configuration defaults for every distribution included application. the closest windows has to this is the windows directory itself.

/home* this is comparable to the c:\documents and settings in windows nt family of products. it is recommended that this be a separate partition

/lib this is the core shared libraries and kernel modules. again this is the windows\system folder

/media a directory detailed to be used for removable media, such as floppys and cdroms, this is often not included. my computer in windows

/mnt this directory is always used, it is intended to hold mount points for filesystems, it is also used for the media mout points mentioned above. my computer in windows.

/opt* : Add-on application software packages.
by making this a partition, not just a directory in the / filesystem, you can control the space available for after market applications. unfortunately, this usage has not happened as much as it should have. c:\program files ( need I say more? Wink )

/proc this is a depreciated structure, it was used to store active processes. newer systems will no longer have this.

/root this is the system admin users home directory, locked to root access only. optionally, but not recommended, a separate partition it is comparable to c:\windows

/sbin this is the root user only executable tools.
comparable to c:\windows\command

/srv : Data for services provided by this system
no real windows equivalent, other than c:\windows

/tmp : Temporary files, optionally a separate partition. comparable to c:\windows\temp
I personally do make this a separate partition, as some cd burning software creates temporary disc images in this, and I can ensure enough space for this activity this way.

/usr this is the area that the actual programs, libraries sources for the kernel... are installed.
most 3rd party software also installs itself here, despite the existance of the /opt directory / partition. this is c:\program files there is an entire heirarchy under this, that breaks the contents into even smaller areas, the url supplied at the bottom has these details. I always set this as it's own partition and ensure it is twice the size required for the system ( those 3rd party apps you know. )

/var optionally it's own partion, recommended to be so. this is used to store logs, default for webserver root. public ftp mailcap ( email server ) in short to store anything that is changed regularly, and that a record is needed. most closely matched by c:\windows

and there you have a brief outline of what each of those cryptic directories are for on your linux workstation. this should help you to find your way around, if / when you are troubleshooting a system. ( like finding default font setting for xfs ( x font srever ) )
all of this, in technical detail, including options can be found: Here


Posted by: Jaqui


Back to top
View user's profile Visit poster's website Photo Gallery
Display posts from previous:   
Post new topic    Revive this topic    Printer Friendly Page    Forum Index ›  Software
Page 1 of 1
All times are GMT - 6 Hours

Archive Revive
Username:
This is an archived topic - your reply will not be appended here.
Instead, a new topic will be generated in the active forum.
The new topic will provide a reference link to this archived topic.